信息来源:网络  发布时间:2015-06-18
摘 要:






  Oxford is a unique and historic institution. As the oldest English-speaking university in the world, it lays claim to eight centuries of continuous existence. There is no clear date of foundation, but teaching existed at Oxford in some form in 1096 and developed rapidly from 1167, when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris.

  In 1188, the historian, Gerald of Wales, gave a public reading to the assembled Oxford dons and in 1190 the arrival of Emo of Friesland, the first known overseas student, initiated the University's tradition of international scholarship. By 1201, the University was headed by a magister scolarum Oxonie, on whom the title of Chancellor was conferred in 1214, and in 1231 the masters were recognized as a uniuersitas or corporation. www.joozone.com

  In the 13th century, rioting between town and gown (students and townspeople) hastened the establishment of primitive halls of residence. These were succeeded by the first of xford's colleges or endowed houses whose architectural splendour, together with the University's libraries and museums, give the city its unique character. University, Balliol and Merton Colleges, established between 1249 and 1264, were the oldest.

  Less than a century later, Oxford had achieved eminence above every other seat of learning, and won the praises of popes, kings and sages by virtue of its antiquity, curriculum, doctrine and privileges. In 1355, Edward III paid tribute to the University for its invaluable contribution to learning; he also commented on the services rendered to the state by distinguished Oxford graduates.

  Oxford early on became a centre for lively controversy, with scholars involved in religious and political disputes. John Wyclif, a 14th-century Master of Balliol, campaigned for a bible in the vernacular, against the wishes of the papacy. In 1530, Henry VIII forced the University to accept his divorce from Catherine of Aragon. During the Reformation in the 16th century, the Anglican churchmen Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley were tried for heresy and burnt at the stake in Oxford. The University was Royalist in the Civil War, and Charles I held a counter-Parliament in Convocation House. copyright joozone

  In the late 17th century, the Oxford philosopher John Locke, suspected of treason, was forced to flee the country. The 18th century, when Oxford was said to have forsaken port for politics, was also an era of scientific discovery and religious revival. Edmund Halley, Professor of Geometry, predicted the return of the comet that bears his name; John and Charles Wesley's prayer meetings laid the foundations of the Methodist Society.


  牛津大学历史悠久,但始建于哪一年,没有人能确切说得出来。牛津大学的创始故事颇为传神,根据当地人的说法,牛津大学创始于1167年,当时英王亨利二世下令禁止英国的神学学生到巴黎大学研究神学或宗教,因而一帮宗教学者及学生慢慢聚集于此,逐渐演变成学院的雏形。换言之,牛津大学的成立是因早期 “人才外流”的问题。不过,也有资料表明它的教学活动可追溯到1096年,如果从那时算起,牛津的历史超过了900年。

  毫无疑问,牛津大学是现存人类历史上最早的大学之一。有的历史学家说,默顿学院(Merton College)是最早的学院;亦有人说,大学学院(University College)才是大学的滥觞。不管哪一种说法正确,都无损于今日由46个学院所组成的牛津大学在学术上的崇高地位。目前牛津大学是由三十九所学院及由教会设立的七所永久私人学院(Permanent private halls)合组而成。学院也不按专业划分,但在发展过程中,各个学院渐渐形成了各自的特点。比如,基督教堂学院(Christ Church)以浓厚的贵族气氛著称;默顿学院(Merton College)出了不少诗人;圣埃德穆学院(St Edmund Hall)特别喜欢招收运动员;奥列尔学院(Oriel College)侧重培养牧师;摩德林学院 (Magdalen College)有许多赛艇高手。这些学院彼此平等,学生可以在任何一所学院学习,直到毕业。除七所学院以招收研究生为限外,其余三十二所学院及七所永久私人学院均招收大学部学生(或兼收研究生)。这些学院,有些是仅收男生(如Oriel)或女生(如St. Hilda''s、St. Hugh''s及Somerville三校),而多数是两者兼收的。

  就学院本身而言,都各自拥有相当自主的管理权力。学院订定自己的院规,筹募所需的财务来源,并招收自己所选择的学生。不过任何人欲至牛津大学就读,均须同时获得大学系所及学院入学的同意,方视为正式被许可入学之规定,亦为牛津、剑桥两校特殊之处。学院最大功能除要照料学生食宿外,并安排各类体育、团体社交活动,负责指派导师(tutor)照顾学生。由于各学院财务状况不一,有的学院很有钱,有广大的场地及良好的设备或福利,像客房(guest house)、图书馆及研究室等。而大学所扮演的角色,主要是向外代表各学院,统一安排全校课堂讲授(lecture)及讨论会(Seminar),以及统一颁发毕业文凭等工作。因此就实质情况来看,学生和所属学院的关系,远超过了大学。








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